map of Germany; source: WR GERMANY

[Deutschland] :
general data of the country


 
General useful information
 
Note: some data are of constant value, while other are due to changes, fluctuations etc.
 
Nation and population
official name (short form): Deutschland
country code ISO: DE //; - FIPS: GM
location: West-Central Europe
time zone: +1 UT* [*= applying daylight saving time]
surface (land) area: 356910 sq.km = 137803 sq.mi //; - area incl. inland waters: sq.km = sq.mi
geographical position in extreme co-ordinates: North: 55° N / South: 47° N / East: 15° E / West: 6° E
borders (land): Denmark, Poland, Czech Republic, Austria, Switzerland, France, Luxembourg, Belgium, Netherlands
borders (coastline): North Sea, Baltic Sea
climate: mainly maritime, with some continental or alpine influences
Government
independent since: 800 ; 1648 ; 1871; 1949-05-23; 1955-05-05; 1990-10-03
type of government: federal republic
capital: Berlin
administrative division: Land [plural Länder], also known as: Bundesland (16)
Population
population according to the latest census (1987): 77718,000; this includes an estimate of the former DDR
total population according to the estimate of midyear 2000: 82,797408; or: 82150,000 // - ; 2001: 82,300000
population density: 230 per sq.km = 597 per sq.mi
population growth: 0,5% //; - doubling time: not applicable, exceeds 100 years
birth rate: 9 - 11 per 1000
death rate: 10 -12 per 1000
fertility rate: 1 child per female
maternal mortality: 12 per 100,000
infant mortality (1-4 years): 8 per 1000
life expectancy: 77 years (male: 74; female: 81)
age breakdown: 0-14 years: 16% //; - 15-59 years: 79% //; - 60+ years: 6%
urbanisation: 87% //; - urbanisation growth: 0,4%
percentage of urban population in the greatest city: 18%
Ethnic composition, language, religion
ethnic groups: German 91,4%; Turkish 2,4%; Yugoslav 1%; Italian 0,7%; Greek 0,4%; Polish 0,3%
languages: German (official)
religious affiliation: Protestant 43%; Roman Catholic 34%; Muslim 2%; other, and non religious 21%
Health
daily food intake: 3402 calories per capita
population with access to safe water: 98%
people per physician: 279
people per hospital bed: 145
Education, literacy
school enrolment: primary education 6-11 years: 99%
school enrolment: secondary education: 94%
school enrolment: tertiary education 20-24 years: 26%
adult literacy: 99% (male: %; female: %)
 
Economy and infrastructure
 
Economy and trade
currency: Euro = 100 cents (until 2002: [Deutsche] Mark = 100 Pfennig)
annual inflation rate: 2%
population below poverty line: 10%
Gross Domestic Product: USD 27510 per capita
GNI USD 25120 per capita //; - [ppp: 24920]
GDP growth: 1%
income: USD 23650 per capita
import: USD 443224 per capita //; - export: USD 508509 per capita
trade: USD 12660 per capita //; - or 56% of GDP
trade partners: FR NL IT PL GB US BE CH AT JP CIS
human development index: 0,921 //; - position of the country in the world no.: 17
female labour force: 42%
unemployment: 10%
tourism: 19 million
Economic activities in agriculture, fisheries, industry, mining, services, energy
land use: arable land: 36% //; - grass land: 16% //; - wooded area: 30% //; - arid land and desert: %
agriculture: labour force: 4% //; - part of agriculture in GDP: 2%
agricultural products: cereals, fruits, flowers, potatoes, sugar beets, grapes, vegetables, nurseries
livestock (million): cattle: 14,7 / goats: 0,1 / horses: 0,5 / pigs: 26 / poultry: 118 / sheep: 2,2
fish catch: 238925 - 318785 metric tonnes
industry: labour force: 30% //; - part of industry in GDP: 39%
industrial products: motor vehicles, heavy engineering, electronics, chemicals, aluminium, beer
mining products: coal, natural gas, copper, salt, potash, tin, nickel, lignite, iron, uranium
CO2 emission per capita: 10,1
services: labour force: 66% //; - part of services in GDP: 59%
energy use (kg per capita): 4108
electricity use (per capita): 5690
annual water use (per capita): 579
Traffic, communication
road network: 649100 km //; - of which paved: 99% //; - of which are motorways: 11300 km
vehicles: 374 per 1000
railways: 38126, or 88504 km //; - railways passenger/km: 64100
navigable inland waterways: 6740 - 7541 km
ownership telephone: 494 per 1000
ownership radio receivers: 946 - 1875 per 1000
ownership tv-sets: 552 - 571 per 1000
newspaper circulation: 317 per 1000
persons per post office: 4760
personal computers: 336 per 1000
 
Some physical landmarks
 
mountains: Zugspitze 2962 m, Höllentalspitze 2745, Watzmann 2713, Hochfrottspitze 2649
lowest point: ca 0,5 m below sea level in the polders near the NW coast
lakes (natural): Bodensee, Chiemsee, Müritz, Plauer See, Ammer See, Starnberger See, Tegernsee, and others
lakes (artificial reservoirs): a few small ones like Möhnesee, Edersee
lakes (deepest): unknown
rivers: Rhein (Rhine), Donau (Danube), Elbe, Weser, Oder, Main, Mosel, Ems, Werra, Saale, Havel, and others
canals: Mittellandkanal, Main-Donaukanal, Nord-Ostseekanal, Dortmund-Emskanal, Elbe Seitenkanal, and others
waterfalls: unknown
caves: longest system:unknown / deepest:
islands: Rügen; Frisian islands: Nordfrisische Inseln, Ostfrisische Inseln [too many to state specific names]
deserts: none
other natural features:
 
Additional remarks, especially on the statistical information
 
other important features:
apart from physical landmarks most of the above figures are changeable, in most cases they date from the 1990's
 
primary sources used for the general information:
BB CA EV PW WA WB WR, and some national statistical yearbooks
particulars concerning population data:
 

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Latest modification of this page on 2004-02-13 by Jan Lahmeyer
1999/2004 "populstat" site: Jan Lahmeyer