map of Romania; source: WR ROMANIA

general data of the country


 
General useful information
 
Note: some data are of constant value, while other are due to changes, fluctuations etc.
 
Nation and population
official name (short form): România
country code ISO: RO //; - FIPS: RO
location: Southeast Europe
time zone: +2 UT* [*= applying daylight saving time]
surface (land) area: 237500 sq.km = 91699 sq.mi //; - area incl. inland waters: sq.km = sq.mi
geographical position in extreme co-ordinates: North: 48°15'06" N / South: 43°37'07" N / East: 29°41'24" E / West: 20°15'44" E
borders (land): Bulgaria 631 km, Yugoslavia 546, Moldova 681, Ukraine 649, Hungary 448
borders (coastline): Black Sea 194 km // total length of all borders: 3150 km
climate: moderate continental
Government
independent since: 1859 ; 1862 ; 1877-05-21
type of government: republic
capital: Bucuresti (Bucharest)
administrative division: judet (41) [ "judetul" is the name with the article included]
Population
population according to the last two censuses (1992): 22760,449 / -; (2002, provisional results) ca 21900,000
total population according to the estimate of midyear 2000: 22411,121 /-; 2001: 22435,000
population density: 93 per sq.km = 240 per sq.mi
population growth: -0,4% //; - doubling time: not applicable; stable, or recently declining population
birth rate: 11 - 15 per 1000
death rate: 11 - 12 per 1000
fertility rate: 2 children per female
maternal mortality: 150 per 100,000
infant mortality (1-4 years): 19 per 1000
life expectancy: 70 years (male: 66; female: 74)
age breakdown: 0-14 years: 23% //; - 15-59 years: 61% //; - 60+ years: 16%
urbanisation: 56% //; - urbanisation growth: 2,5%
percentage of urban population in the greatest city: 17%
Ethnic composition, language, religion
ethnic groups: Romanian 89,5%; Hungarian 7,1%; Roma 1,7%; German 0,5%; Ukrainian 0,3%; Russian 0,2%; Turk 0,1%
languages: Romanian (official); Hungarian, German, Roma
religious affiliation: Romanian Orthodox 70%; Greek Orthodox 10%; Roman Catholic 6%; Protestant 6%
Health
daily food intake: 3263 calories per capita
population with access to safe water: 62%
people per physician: 543
people per hospital bed: 137
Education, literacy
school enrolment: primary education 6-11 years: 95%
school enrolment: secondary education: 88%
school enrolment: tertiary education 20-24 years: 14%
adult literacy: 96,7% (male: 98,5%; female: 95%)
 
Economy and infrastructure
 
Economy and trade
currency: Leu (plural: Lei) = 100 bani
annual inflation rate: 98%
population below poverty line: 21%
Gross Domestic Product: USD 1480 per capita
GNI USD 1670per capita //; - [ppp: 6360]
GDP growth: -0,4%
income: USD 1340 per capita
import: USD 11435 per capita //; - export: USD 8085 per capita
trade: USD 414 per capita //; - or 64% of GDP
trade partners: EU CIS-countries AS CN YU IR
human development index: 0,772 //; - position of the country in the world no.: 58
female labour force: 45%
unemployment: 10,5%
tourism: 3,3 million
Economic activities in agriculture, fisheries, industry, mining, services, energy
land use: arable land: 44% //; - grass land: 21% //; - wooded area: 28% //; - arid land and desert: %
agriculture: labour force: 31% //; - part of agriculture in GDP: 19%
agricultural products: cereals, sugar, fruit, vegetables, timber, livestock, fish, potatoes, grapes, sunflower seeds
livestock (million): asses: ? / cattle: 3 / goats: 0,6 / horses: 0,9 / pigs: 6 / poultry: 72 / sheep: 8
fish catch: 19322 metric tonnes
industry: labour force: 44% //; - part of industry in GDP: 49%
industrial products: iron & steel, chemicals, textiles, food processing, construction materials, machinery, metals
mining products: natural oil & gas, iron, bauxite, zinc, copper, coal
CO2 emission per capita: 4,1
services: labour force: 26% //; - part of services in GDP: 32%
energy use (kg per capita): 1622
electricity use (per capita): 1511
annual water use (per capita): 1134
Traffic, communication
road network: 72816 (153170) km //; - of which paved: 50% //; - of which are motorways: 114 km
vehicles: 100 per 1000
railways: 11127, or 11365 km //; - railways passenger/km: 18880
navigable inland waterways: 1613, or 1724 km
ownership telephone: 131 - 167 per 1000
ownership radio receivers: 198 - 335 per 1000
ownership tv-sets: 201 - 233 per 1000
newspaper circulation: 297 per 1000
persons per post office: 4330
personal computers: 32 per 1000
 
Some physical landmarks
 
mountains: Moldoveanu 2544 m, Negoiu 2535, Parângu Mare 2518, Peleaga 2509, Omu 2505, Retezat 2482, Iezeru Mare 2462
lowest point: sea level
lakes (natural): Oltina, Iezerul Mostistei, Balta Alba, Jirlâu, Amara-Buzâu, Snagov, Ianca
lakes (artificial reservoirs): Ostrovu Mare, Portiel de Fier, Stânca-Costesti, Izvorul Muntelui Bicaz, Strejesti
lakes (deepest): unknown
rivers: Dunârea (Danube) 1075 km, Mures 761, Prut 742, Olt 615, Siret 559, Ialomita 417, Somes 376, Arges 350, Jiu 339, Buzâu 302
canals: unknown
waterfalls: unknown
caves: longest system: unknown / deepest:
islands: none // deserts: none
other natural features: more lakes as sea lagunes: Razim, Sinoie, Golovita, Zmeica, Siuthgiol
 
Additional remarks, especially on the statistical information
 
other important features:
apart from physical landmarks most of the above figures are changeable, in most cases they date from the 1990's. The territorial surface
of the state has changed many times between 1859 and the present time. Differences from 1859-1877, 1878-1912, 1913-1918,
1918-1940, 1941-1945 and from 1945 onwards: see the remarks at the bottom of the file containing the country's population growth
primary sources used for the general information:
BB CA EV PW WA WB WR, and some national statistical yearbooks
particulars concerning population data:
 

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Latest modification of this page on 2004-03-03 by Jan Lahmeyer
1999/2004 "populstat" site: Jan Lahmeyer