map of Turkmenistan; source WR TURKMENISTAN

general data of the country


 
General useful information
 
Note: some data are of constant value, while other are due to changes, fluctuations etc.
 
Nation and population
official name (short form): Tûrkmenistan
country code ISO: TM //; - FIPS: TX
location: West Central Asia
time zone: +5 UT
surface (land) area: 488100 sq.km = 188455 sq.mi //; - area incl. inland waters: sq.km = sq.mi
geographical position in extreme co-ordinates: North: 43° N / South: 35° N / East: 67° E / West: 53° E
borders (land): Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Iran
borders (coastline): Caspian Sea
climate: continental arid
Government
independent since: 1991-10-27
type of government: republic
capital: A`'sgabat
administrative division: welayah [=province] (4) + city (1)
Population
population according to the latest census (1995): 4000,460; or: 4483,251
total population according to the estimate of midyear 2000: 4518,268; or: 5199,000 /-; 2001: 4603,244; or: 5170,000
population density: 9,3 per sq.km = 24 per sq.mi
population growth: 2,6% //; - doubling time: 29 years
birth rate: 29 - 32 per 1000
death rate: 8 - 9 per 1000
fertility rate: 4 children per female
maternal mortality: per 100,000
infant mortality (1-4 years): 46 per 1000
life expectancy: 61 - 65 years (male: 57 - 62; female: 65 - 69)
age breakdown: 0-14 years: 41% //; - 15-59 years: 53% //; - 60+ years: 6%
urbanisation: 45% //; - urbanisation growth: %
percentage of urban population in the greatest city: %
Ethnic composition, language, religion
ethnic groups: Turkmen 77%; Uzbek 9,2%; Russian 6,7%; Kazak 2%; Armenian 0,8%; Ukrainian 0,8%; Tatar 0,8%; Azerbaijan 0,8%
languages: Turkmen (official); Russian, Uzbek
religious affiliation: Sunnî Muslim 87% (source PW states here: Shî'îte Muslim!); Christian (Eastern Orthodox) 2,5%
Health
daily food intake: 2684 calories per capita
population with access to safe water: 58%
people per physician: 330
people per hospital bed: 97
Education, literacy
school enrolment: primary education 6-11 years: %
school enrolment: secondary education: %
school enrolment: tertiary education 20-24 years: %
adult literacy: % (male: 98%; female: 97%)
 
Economy and infrastructure
 
Economy and trade
currency: Manat = 100 tenesi
annual inflation rate: 408%
population below poverty line: %
Gross Domestic Product: USD 1270 per capita
GNI USD 750 per capita //; - [ppp: 3800]
GDP growth: -8%
income: USD 1700 per capita
import: USD 1364 per capita //; - export: USD 1881 per capita
trade: USD 350 per capita //; - or 93% of GDP
trade partners: CIS-countries TR IR
human development index: 0,73 //; - position of the country in the world no.: 83
female labour force: 46%
unemployment: 3%
tourism: 0,3million
Economic activities in agriculture, fisheries, industry, mining, services, energy
land use: arable land: 3% //; - grass land: 62% //; - wooded area: 8% //; - arid land and desert: 25%
agriculture: labour force: 43% //; - part of agriculture in GDP: 43%
agricultural products: seed cotton, vegetables, grain, fruit
livestock (1000s): asses: 24 / camels: 40 / cattle: 850 / goats: 368 / horses: 16 / pigs: 46 / poultry: 4550 / sheep: 5600
fish catch: metric tonnes
industry: labour force: 11% //; - part of industry in GDP: 41%
industrial products: metal & metalworks, food products, chemical products, construction materials, textiles
mining products: sulphur, sodium sulphate, potassium, salt, natural oil & gas, coal
CO2 emission per capita: 5,7
services: labour force: 47% //; - part of services in GDP: 16%
energy use (kg per capita): 2677
electricity use (per capita): 944
annual water use (per capita): 6390
Traffic, communication
road network: 22600, or 24000 km //; - of which paved: 81% //; - of which are motorways: 0 km
vehicles: 46 per 1000
railways: 2187, or 2393 km //; - railways passenger/km: 2100
navigable inland waterways: 0 km
ownership telephone: 82 - 215 per 1000
ownership radio receivers: 189 - 289 per 1000
ownership tv-sets: 189 - 240 per 1000
newspaper circulation: per 1000
persons per post office:
personal computers: per 1000
 
Some physical landmarks
 
mountains: Gora Reza 2942 m, Gora Masinev 2335, Gora Tagarev 2246
lowest point: 26 m below sea level, at the border of the Caspian Sea
lakes (natural): Caspian Sea, including Zaliv Kara Bogaz-Gol
lakes (artificial reservoirs): none, or unknown
lakes (deepest): Caspian Sea
rivers: Amu Darya, Atrak
canals: Karakumskiy Kanal
waterfalls: none, or unknown
caves: longest system: none, or unknown / deepest:
islands: none
deserts: Kara Kum
other natural features:
 
Additional remarks, especially on the statistical information
 
other important features:
apart from physical landmarks most of the above figures are changeable, in most cases they date from the 1990's
 
primary sources used for the general information:
BB CA EV PW WA WB WR, and some national statistical yearbooks
particulars concerning population data:
 

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Latest modification of this page on 2004-03-12 by Jan Lahmeyer
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