map of Mongolia; source: WR MONGOLIA

[Mongol Uls] :
general data of the country


 
General useful information
 
Note: some data are of constant value, while other are due to changes, fluctuations etc.
 
Nation and population
official name (short form): Mongol Uls
country code ISO: MN //; - FIPS: MG
location: Northeast Asia
time zone: +8 UT* [*= applying daylight saving time]
surface (land) area: 1566500 sq.km = 604826 sq.mi //; - area incl. inland waters: sq.km = sq.mi
geographical position in extreme co-ordinates: North: 52° N / South: 42° N / East: 120° E / West: 88° E
borders (land): Russian Federation, China
borders (coastline): none
climate: harsh arid continental
Government
independent since: 1921-03-13
type of government: republic
capital: Ulaanbaatar
administrative division: province (21) + autonomous municipality (1)
Population
population according to the last two censuses (1989): 2043,100 /-; (2000): 2382,500
total population according to the estimate of midyear 2000: 2398,000 /-; 2001: 2416,000
population density: 1,5 per sq.km = 4 per sq.mi
population growth: `2% //; - doubling time: 47 years
birth rate: 22 - 27 per 1000
death rate: 7 per 1000
fertility rate: 5 children per female
maternal mortality: per 100,000
infant mortality (1-4 years): 54 per 1000
life expectancy: 64 years (male: 62; female: 66)
age breakdown: 0-14 years: 41% //; - 15-59 years: 54% //; - 60+ years: 5%
urbanisation: 63% //; - urbanisation growth: 4%
percentage of urban population in the greatest city: 52%
Ethnic composition, language, religion
ethnic groups: Khalkha Mongol 79%; Kazakh 6%; Dörbet Mongol 3%; Bayat 3%; Buryat Mongol 2%; Dariganga Mongol 2%; Chinese 2%; Russian 2%
languages: Khalkha Monogolian, Chinese, Russian
religious affiliation: Tibetan Buddhist 96%; Muslim 4% [in certain sources a former kind is also mentioned: Shamanist 31%]
Health
daily food intake: 2010 calories per capita
population with access to safe water: 60%
people per physician: 384
people per hospital bed: 132
Education, literacy
school enrolment: primary education 6-11 years: 100%
school enrolment: secondary education: 81%
school enrolment: tertiary education 20-24 years: 8%
adult literacy: 89% (male: %; female: %) [later total figure found: 99%]
 
Economy and infrastructure
 
Economy and trade
currency: Tugrik = 100 möngö
annual inflation rate: 58%
population below poverty line: 36%
Gross Domestic Product: USD 660 per capita
GNI USD 390 per capita //; - [ppp: 1760]
GDP growth: -0,3%
income: USD 600 per capita
import: USD 415 per capita //; - export: USD 473 per capita
trade: USD 400 per capita //; - or 93% of GDP
trade partners: CIS-countries CN BG DE CS
human development index: 0,569 //; - position of the country in the world no.: 116
female labour force: 47%
unemployment: 5%
tourism: 0,2 million
Economic activities in agriculture, fisheries, industry, mining, services, energy
land use: arable land: 1% //; - grass land: 79% //; - wooded area: 9% //; - arid land and desert: ca 10%
agriculture: labour force: 40% //; - part of agriculture in GDP: 16%
agricultural products: cereals, potatoes, vegetables, timber
livestock (1000s): camels: 360 / cattle: 3000 / goats: 10270 / horses: 2800 / pigs: 15 / poultry: 58 / sheep: 13876
fish catch: metric tonnes
industry: labour force: 21% //; - part of industry in GDP: 33%
industrial products: food processing, textiles, chemicals, leather & footwear, construction materials
mining products: oil, coal, copper, uranium, fluorspar, tungsten, tin, gold, molybdenum, phosphates
CO2 emission per capita: 3,3
services: labour force: 39% //; - part of services in GDP: 51%
energy use (kg per capita): 1240
electricity use (per capita):
annual water use (per capita): 273
Traffic, communication
road network: 11180, or 49250 km //; - of which paved: 11% //; - of which are motorways: 0 km
vehicles: 11 per 1000
railways: 1807, or: 2083 km //; - railways passenger/km: 830
navigable inland waterways: 397 km
ownership telephone: 32 - 39 per 1000
ownership radio receivers: 74 - 194 per 1000
ownership tv-sets: 59 - 63 per 1000
newspaper circulation: 88 per 1000
persons per post office: 6430
personal computers: 13 per 1000
 
Some physical landmarks
 
mountains: Mönh Hayrhan Uul 4362 m, Cast Uul 4208, Türgün Uul 4116, Sutay Uul 4090, Otgon Tenger Uul 4031
lowest point: 583 m in the Eastern tip at the borders of the lake Buyr Nuur
lakes (natural): Uvs Nuur, Hövsgö Nuur, Dörgön Nuur, Har Us Nuur, Buyr Nuur
lakes (artificial reservoirs): none, or unknown
lakes (deepest): unknown
rivers: Dzavhan Gol, Kerulen, Selenge Mörön, Orhon Gol
canals: none, or unknown
waterfalls: none, or unknown
caves: longest system: none, or unknown / deepest:
islands: none
deserts: Gobi
other natural features:
 
Additional remarks, especially on the statistical information
 
other important features:
apart from physical landmarks most of the above figures are changeable, in most cases they date from the 1990's
due to the very dry and cold winters lately the number of livestock has fallen dramatically
primary sources used for the general information:
BB CA EV PW WA WB WR, and some national statistical yearbooks
particulars concerning population data:
 

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Latest modification of this page on 2004-02-27 by Jan Lahmeyer
1999/2004 "populstat" site: Jan Lahmeyer